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    當前位置: 首頁 > 千克文苑 > 精彩譯文

    10個關鍵點,讀懂西班牙新《商標法》

    2019-02-18kg-吳雙(翻譯)PONS IP 官網下載文件:暫時沒有下載文件
    1月14日,西班牙開始實施商標法改革。此次修改將會同時影響新的商標申請人和已經擁有西班牙商標的申請人。因此,我們將西班牙新《商標法》的內容歸納為十個關鍵點,以了解西班牙新《商標法》的改革內容,以及今后商標所有人應注意的問題。

    1、為何要修改《商標法》
    《商標法》中引入的這些變化是為了適應西班牙立法適應(歐盟)第2015/2436號指令的需要,該指令包括商標保護領域的眾多修改。其主要目標是優化整個歐盟的商標申請和注冊程序,增加法律的確定性,促進各國商標制度與歐盟商標制度的共存與平衡。

    2、取消“圖形表達”要求
    最重要的變化之一是取消了對圖形表示的要求。到目前為止,圖形表示一直是西班牙專利商標局(SPTO)接受某一商標的條件。這意味著任何能被清晰準確復制的顯著標志都有資格得到保護。這一變化擴大了可以在西班牙注冊的非傳統商標的范圍,如彩色商標、全息圖、聲音和運動商標、形狀和位置商標等,這一系列保護獨特的標志的可能性,使客戶對他們的商標的認知更為強烈。

    3. 異議階段加入“使用證據”
    最顯著的變化之一是異議程序的變化,即注冊商標反對相似或相同的顯著標志注冊的過程。自即日起,新申請人可以要求反對其注冊的人證明該商標的真實、有效使用情況(注冊滿5年以上的)。異議人不能證明其使用或者援引正當理由的,駁回其異議。

    4. 取消“著名商標(notorious trademark)”與“馳名商標(well-known trademark)”區別
    新《商標法》消除了這兩種非常特殊的商標之間的區別,將它們統一為“馳名商標(well-known trademark)”。這些商標應當為公眾所熟知和分享,這使其所有者可以反對與自己的商標相同或類似的商標申請,即使他們指定了不同的產品或服務。

    5. 嚴厲打擊侵權措施
    這項改革使商標所有者如發現某些商品上的標識與自己的商標完全相同或幾乎完全相同,則所有者有可能阻止來自第三國的這些商品進入西班牙,無需提出請求,所有以上所述的產品都不可在西班牙銷售,這大大地加強了對反侵權行為的保護。

    6. 開放合法化系統
    自1月14日起,任何個人或法人均可在西班牙申請商標或商號注冊,無論其國籍、居住地或國際協議如何。

    7. 加強對原產地標志和地理標志的保護
    新《商標法》加強了對地理標志(PGI)和原產地標志(PDO)的保護;對于第三方提出的與PGI或PDO相同或類似的商標申請,SPTO可以通過提出相應的異議,以絕對或相對的理由予以拒絕。

    8. 商標限制包括植物品種名稱
    這項改革對包括或復制植物品種名稱的商標的注冊提出了具體的禁止,從而澄清和加強了保護植物品種,不受隨后商標注冊的影響。

    9. 西班牙專利商標局(SPTO)的新權力
    該法賦予西班牙專利商標局對商標無效和撤銷事宜的直接管轄權。這意味著西班牙專利商標局可宣布任何已注冊的商標無效。迄今為止,主管法院幾乎在所有案件中都遇到過這一問題,因此,這一改變將加速這種程序并大大減少其費用。這一點改革將于2023年1月生效。

    10. 為商標所有者和新申請人提供的建議
    簡而言之,新制度增加了一些措施,可以幫助在西班牙注冊和保護獨特的標志,這是一個很好的機會來注冊商標。另一方面,對于既有商標的所有人,我們建議對他們的商標或商標組合進行全面而詳盡的審核,以便他們能夠發現商標注冊與其用途之間可能存在的任何分歧,以便整合其獨特的標志。這種審核可以發現新《商標法》提供的新的保護機會,特別是關于非傳統商標的保護機會。?


    原文:
    ?
    Ten keys to understanding the new Trademark Law

    Carmen González?

    The reform of the Trademark Law entered into force in Spain on January 14. The modifications that are incorporated shall affect both new trademark applicants and those who already own one. Therefore, from PONS IP, we have summarized the new Law in ten key points to understand what this reform consists of and?what trademark owners should take into account from now on.

    1.?? ?Why the Law is Amended
    The changes introduced in the Trademark Law respond to the need to adapt Spanish legislation to?Directive (EU) 2015/2436?which includes numerous modifications in the field of trademark protection. Its main objective is to optimize trademark application and registration procedures throughout the European Union, to increase legal certainty and to promote the coexistence and balance between national trademark systems and those of the EU.
    ?
    2.?? ?The requirement for "graphical representation" disappears
    One of the most significant changes is that the requirement for graphic representation has been removed, which until now had been a condition for any trademark to be accepted by the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office (SPTO). This means that?any distinctive sign that can be clearly and precisely reproduced shall be eligible for protection. This change broadens the spectrum of non-conventional trademarks that can be registered in Spain, such as color trademarks, holograms, sound and movement trademarks, shape and position trademarks; a whole range of possibilities to protect distinctive signs that appeal more strongly to the perceptions that clients have about their trademarks. ??

    3.?? ?Introduction of "proof of use" in opposition proceedings
    One of the most striking changes is the one affecting the opposition procedure, proceeding through which registered trademarks oppose the registration of similar or identical distinctive signs. From now on, the new applicants shall be able to require those who oppose their registration to prove a?genuine and current use of the trademark in question?(provided that it has been registered for at least 5 years). If the opponent cannot prove such use or invoke any justifiable cause, the opposition shall be rejected.?

    4. ? The distinction between "notorious trademark" and "well-known trademark" disappears (and all will be renamed from now on)
    The New Law has eliminated the distinction between these two very special types of trademarks, unifying them under?"well-known trademark". Such trademarks should be highly known and shared among the public, which allows their owners, among other things, to oppose applications for trademarks identical or similar to their own, even if they designate different products or services.

    5.?? ?Tougher measures against piracy
    The reform gives trademark owners the possibility of?preventing the introduction into Spain of goods from third-countries?containing a sign identical or virtually identical to their own; all without requiring, as hitherto, that the products in question be marketed here, which means a significant strengthening of protection against acts of piracy.

    6. ? Open legitimization system
    Since January 14, any individual or legal entity can apply for the registration of a trademark or trade name in Spain regardless of circumstances related to their nationality, residence or international agreements.

    7. Greater protection for protected designations of origin and geographical indications
    The protection of geographical indications (PGI) and designations of origin (PDO) is reinforced by this Law; applications for trademarks identical or similar to that of a PGI or PDO by a third-party may be refused by the SPTO both on?absolute and relative grounds of refusal through the filing of the corresponding opposition.

    8.?? ?Restrictions for trademarks including plant variety denominations
    The reform introduces a specific prohibition on the registration of trademarks consisting of or reproducing the denomination of a plant variety which clarifies and reinforces the conditions for its protection against attempts to register subsequent trademarks.

    9.?? ?New competencies for the SPTO
    The Law confers direct jurisdiction on the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office in matters of?trademark nullity and revocation. This means that this office may declare any trademark already registered null ?This is a matter that, until now, had been fixed by the competent courts in almost all cases, and this change shall therefore speed up this type of procedure and significantly reduce its cost. However, we will have to wait until January 2023 for this point of the reform to enter into force. or expired.

    10.?? ?Recommendations for trademark owners and new applicants
    The new system adds, in short, some measures that can aid with the registration and protection of distinctive signs in Spain, which is an excellent opportunity to take the step to register our trademarks. On the other hand, and for those who are already owners, we recommend a complete and exhaustive audit of their trademark or trademark portfolio, which shall allow them to detect any possible divergence between registrations and their uses in order to facilitate the consolidation of their distinctive signs. This audit makes it possible to detect the new protection opportunities offered by the new Law, especially in relation to non-conventional trademarks.
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